Based on ezinearticles.com, the definition of mission is simply an encapsulation of the mission of a particular organization - its purpose, its goals and how to achieve them. A mission statement may also be considered a blueprint for success, streamlining the efforts of an organization's executives as all decide the direction the organization must head, delineating the perceived best paths towards objective fulfillment. It's what the company focuses to do and they identified the target market or the target customer by determined the strategic process or planning to get in the level performance organization wants.
The mission of business scenarios on stakeholder perspective is research the new payment method by towards of proximity mobile payments by exploratory the progress that is being define a sustainable business model. Determined the suitable sustainable from the four different business models for mobile payment deployment.
The key objectives of The Contactless Payment Council is get an expert opinion from the industry stakeholder for develop a point of view on the emerging business models for mobile payments by using the survey interview by the topics that they design based on the four different business models that The Contactless Payment Council was consider. The Contactless Payment Council also wants to analyze the cooperation on observance of this mobile payment. The objective of stakeholders is determine the models suitable for the market and can be the greatest potential market later. They are opinion are based from the characteristics of the four different business models.
Definition of stakeholder from businessDictionary.com; any person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization's action, objectives and policies. That is people or human and the organization or group has link with the organization that give the effect to the organization in all the operations of the organization. Two types of stakeholders are internal stakeholders and external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders are including all the employees and management and the shareholders in the organization. External stakeholders are the people, group, or any organizations from outside the organization.
The influence of stakeholder in this survey of four different business models for mobile payment is giving the opinion on this four different business models. They are choice of the greatest potential business model that can be success in market. Stakeholder can determine the models that give the potential revenues for them. Different stakeholder in industry can give the different answer by the following topics. So, the new ideas or opinion and a lot of comment can be collected by interviewer. As a result, the answer on the survey question and the comment has to be analyzing to choose the business models that the greatest potential models can be develop in the market. For the consumer the influence maybe the business models that give the best service and easy to adopt with the method of service and not too risk for them when they used the service. For the services retailer the business models that they choose must detect the models services give the revenue and they aim for that. Potential trusted service managers are angling for new services revenue. The influences of stakeholder are different because based from their knowledge, the risk and also the low investment but high revenue or give the more profit to them.
Based Finextra, most survey participants agreed that the Collaboration Model is most feasible because it focuses stakeholders on their own core competencies, opens the door for new revenue from incremental services, drives customer retention and loyalty, and responds to fundamental demand from customers. On the down side, most respondents did not immediately see sufficient incremental revenue to justify the additional costs of deploying NFC.
Regarding the controversial issue of revenue sharing, most survey participants believed that payment transaction revenue belongs to the bank, while airtime, operator services and fees for application residency on the handset or wallet belong to the mobile operator. There were differences of opinion regarding which stakeholder should be the beneficiary of coupon offers, cross-selling of services, and fraud and identity protection services.
Most feel that banks own financial liability while mobile operators own network security. There was surprisingly broad support for TSMs owning some risk, entitling them to revenues from risk assumption for services provided. There was no consensus on the liability for privacy risk between banks and mobile operators.
The emerging capabilities will be the "killer app" are Loyalty / reward programs, access control, targeted coupons, transit, location linked rewards, something to drive daily usage, app easily loaded and easy to use. "Sweet spot" that addresses an unmet need while addressing economic inefficiency "Contactless" because it is intuitive and easy; existing and growing infrastructure to support. (cts.com)
Proximity mobile payments are defined as payments to a merchant that are initiated from a mobile phone that uses Near Field Communication (NFC) technology and is held close to the merchant's POS equipment. (smartcardalliance.org)
The responsibility mobile payment is connecting the payment via the phone to the merchant or any agencies and organization that involves with the payment transaction. The other responsibility is mobile payment save the all transaction payment as the references or evidence for the customer or consumer of the mobile payment. Proximity mobile payment has a responsible to save the data of the transaction payment. For the consumer the proximity mobile payment is being responsible toward like the credit or debit card.
Strategic employed by proximity mobile payments meet them is making their work easy to arrange. The requirement of high capability is needed to improve the proximity mobile payments. In order to manage the system of proximity mobile payments, the skill and promptitude is important. So, they can improve their capability to get employ by the proximity mobile payments. The employed has to improve their knowledge in service of proximity mobile payments. Strategic to get employee is give the training to the employee that competent. Another strategic is proximity mobile payments searching the employ can give the new ideas to get more improvement in the proximity mobile payments.
Economic system determined by the resource ownership and the extent to which the government attempts to organize the economic activities in that society. In other hands, economic system involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between the entities in a particular society. Economic system collected by people and institutions, and also including their relationship to productive resources. Economic system also can be defined as a set of method and standards brought by which a society decides and organizes the part of economic resources. The fundamental economic problem in any society is to provide a set of rules for allocating resources or consumption among individuals who can't satisfy their wants, given limited resources. The rules that each economic system provide function within a frame work of formal situations and informal situations.
Otherwise, economic system refer to the organizational arrangements and process through which a society makes its production and consumption decision. In modifying its economic system, each society chooses among alternative objective and alternative decision modes. There is several type of economic system that usually applies by many countries.
3.1.1 Command economy
Command economy is economy which have been controlled by government planning dominates the direction of economic activity and market forces are not allowed to do so to any considerable degree. Socialist and especially, communist economies are planned economies, whereas capitalist economies are much less so. If the country deciding to implement this type of economic system, supply and price are regulated by the government rather than market forces. Government also will decide which goods and services are produced and how they are distributed. Beside command economy, this type of economy system is also known as centrally planned economy.
3.1.2 Laissez-fair economy
Laissez-fair economy is completely against command economy. This type of economy system relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices. Laissez-fair economy belief on the natural economic order tends, when undisturbed by artificial stimulus or regulation, to secure the maximum well-being for the individuals and therefore for the community as a whole.
3.1.3 Mixed economy
For this type of economy system, there will be a combination between two types of other economic system, command economy and laissez-fair economy. It shows the incorporate of mixture of private and government control or in other hand there also a mixture on capitalism and socialism. This type of economy system is including a degree of private economic freedom with centralized economic planning. Besides that, there also government regulation that maybe included the regulation of market for environmental concerns and social welfare.
Based on the scenario, Papua is one of the Indonesia province that been controlled by government and private. It shows that there implement mixed economy. Economies of Papua have been supported by the natural resources. Papua is rich with natural resources such as copper, gold, iron, ore, coal, oil and gas, fisheries, and also forests. In order to develop the new Papua, Papua Partners Meeting that hosting by Governor of Papua has been provided.
Indonesian government looks that, Papua able to contribute Indonesia with the good economic pressure that able to stabilize Indonesia economic. It s because, Papua able to produce many type of natural resources that needed in the world. Papua also shows that they also able to assured other parties to invest in the developing Papua. When the government has the responsibility to control Papua, automatically there will be some laws that have been provided together. The push from the market also will influence the economy of Papua.
Papua is one of the most popular regions that able to generate a natural resource. Papua is rich with natural resources such as copper, gold, iron, ore, coal, oil and gas, fisheries, and also forests. This resource has to been used by Papua in effective way. It is because these natural resources will be finish future. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mining of numerous deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of exports earnings.
Resources are the means available to accomplish valued goals or desires. Economic resources commonly refer to natural, man-made and human resources used to produce material goods and services. Economic resources also often called factors of production. Energy, raw material, land, natural resources and labour are all important resources that necessary to produce the goods and services society needs and desires.
When these economic resources are scare, individuals and society must take decisions about how to use those resources that are available. Decision must be made regarding to how many and what types of goods or services to produced, and who should receive the output. In general, the factors of production (economic resources) can be divided into two general categories: property resources and human resources. Property resources include all natural resources (free gifts of nature) and man-made aids to production (tools, machinery, equipment, factory, storage, transportation, and distribution facilities). Human resources include labour (physical and mental talents) and entrepreneurial ability (catalyst, innovator, risk bearer). The commonality of all factors of production is their collective scarcity, or limited availability. These factors of production represent the means by which goods and services are produced in an effort to satisfy society's desires. To satisfy the desires of institutions and individuals in society, the goods and services must be consumed. Thus, consumption, in order to fulfill desires, is the foundation of economic activity.
Effectiveness is concerned with results - asking if the outcome achieved was what was really desired. It is a measure of whether the services provided have the intended or desired outcomes. For example, in providing health services, will society be served better by providing basic health care services to a large number of people, or by providing the latest sophisticated technology to only a few. As pressures mount for a more rational approach to the management of the various sectors in the economy, decision makers are increasingly looking to economics for ways to ensure that production and consumption decisions are more efficient, effective, accountable, and available. As a major recipient of public resources and trust, the health care industry is increasingly being held accountable for its utilization of resources.
In the Papua Development Partners Meeting hosted by Governor of Papua follow up meeting with the development partners at the Decentralization Support Facility (DSF) in Jakarta the partners agree to develop a multi-donor strategy for longer term engagement in Papua as their social welfare. To date, the partners have agreed to a set of principles of engagement and a general structure for cooperation. However a specific strategy for longer term engagements in Papua has not yet been developed.
The example of Principle of management is respect to the one another. That means we will respect and listen to one another and honor the integrity of our opponents. When the developments partners respect and really honor to help Papua it can be a good cooperation. They also will have no hidden agendas in their help and have a clearly objective toward Papua.
Social Welfare Policy can be defined as a clearly articulated statement of the government describing a course of action/s to be implemented in order to achieve set goals and objectives as far as social welfare is concerned. Since the Papua Developments Partners Meeting the partners have been engaging to varying degrees with counterparts in Papua. First impact is when Papua receives the donor it can help their country to manage their nature resources like gold, Copper, iron ore, coal, oil and gas, fisheries and forest become a big and have a export business country. DSF is facilities who have responsibilities to change Papua become New Papua.
Papua is a country that has a lot of problems because of their majority population lives in villages and isolated rural areas. Low level of human resources development especially their health and education is one of the factors problem in Papua. When developments partners already working in Papua and continuing their project and support as well as responding the change to develop Papua and solving their problems will be success. Their education and health is in low rates because of their poverty and the development has to change this style for the better life.
For example, when the development wants to build some facilities in Papua they have to hire workers from this country and the development partners must ensure the people in this country have higher education. In this case the development must make sure all level of people have an education and with this way they will increase their lifestyle.
The last impact is their income in a family will increase when they have the opportunity to generate their country wealth by natural resources. Before this the people in Papua didn't know how to implement their country resources to be their personal income. With this development partners they will give access to generating opportunities how to manage this resources become their personal income. When they can increase the amount of their personal income poverty lines in Papua will reduce by year to year. For example, the developments partners can give some motivation to doing export business.
The long term objectives of the government is to establish a policy and institutional framework which will promote the rights of poorer and more vulnerable members of society, enhance their livelihood opportunities and increase their access to social services. Therefore the Government needs to formulate community development and social welfare policy guidelines particularly as regards issues affecting children, juveniles, the elderly, the disabled, the poor families and gender.
Strategic (Environment) Assessment (SEA) is an analytical and participatory approach for mainstreaming environment and social issues into the decision making and the implementation process at the strategic level. It is one of the industrial policy initiatives on this organization. In the Literature SEA extends the application of environment impact assessment (EIA) from project to policies, programs and plans.
SEA is best described as an evolving family of tools. Existing national, regional and international SEA legislation, for the most part, falls under environment impact assessment (EIA) legislation and extends the use of environmental impact assessment to programs and plans and in some cases to policies. In addition, the assessment will help build the capacity of the Papua provincial government to government to integrate environment and social concerns in development planning.
Based on Wikipedia.org, macroeconomic policies are In order to try to avoid major economic shocks, such as The Great Depression, governments' make adjustments through policy changes which they hope will succeed in stabilizing the economy. Governments believe that the success of these adjustments is necessary to maintain stability and continue growth. This economic management is achieved through two types of strategies which are monetary policies and fiscal policies.
Monetary policy refers to any of a number of Papua government measures undertaken to affect financial markets and credit conditions with the ultimate objective of influencing the overall behavior of the economy. The objective of Monetary Policy in Papua New Guinea is to achieve and maintain price stability. If achieved it will lead to confidence in the kina exchange rate and management of the economy, a foundation for stable fiscal operations of the Government, certainty for private sector businesses to plan for long-term investment and development and a stable macroeconomic environment conducive to economic growth
One method of manipulating the money supply, termed open-market operations, involves the trading of Canadian government securities in the secondary bond and Treasury bill markets. A purchase of government bonds by the Bank of Canada represents an immediate increase in the stock of money held by the general public, raises banking system reserves, and therefore has a multiplied indirect effect on the total money supply. The added demand for bonds also puts downward pressure on bond yields and hence on the overall level of interest rates. Through a sequence of opposite effects, a sale of bonds will decrease the money supply and raise interest rates.
Control of the money supply is a powerful tool for influencing the general behavior of the Papua economy. For example, simulative monetary policy such as a higher rate of money-supply expansion will put downward pressure on interest rates, strengthen government investment and production demand, and hence raise the overall level of demand in the economy. During a cyclical downturn, when there is heavy unemployment and idle plant capacity, this stronger demand should in theory lead to a rise in output and increased jobs. Reduced money growth, on the other hand, acts as a restraining force on the economy - causing upward pressure on interest rates and reducing both investment and total demand. At a time of high inflation, such restraint will help reduce price and wage increases.
Because of the strong links between Papua and Jakarta financial markets, monetary policy also has a major impact on the Papua-PGK exchange rate. If Papua monetary policy is significantly more expansionary than Jakarta policy, the value of the Papua PGK will tend to depreciate in relation to the Jakarta-rupiah. A more contractionary Papua policy will result in the reverse effect. Papua monetary policy, therefore, tends to work through a combination of interest rate effects and exchange rate effects. The Bank of Papua attempts to measure the combined impact of both through its monetary conditions index in which a 1% decline in short-term interest rates is equivalent to a 3% decline in the value of the Papua PGK.
5.1.1 Impact of monetary policy
A change in monetary policy does not only have an impact on real economic activity via the interest rate channel but also through the role of loans. If credit conditions change as a result of monetary policy, the ensuing revaluations of the net worth positions of organization can amplify the consequences for real expenditure. The impact can also manifest itself by changing conditions in the balance sheets of organization. Microeconomic view on bank-firm relations, relationship lending, and turn to its relevance for monetary policy. The theory of relationship lending is based on the notion that close ties between banks and government can be economically beneficial. Relationship lending can be defined as a long-term implicit contract between a bank and government. Close ties between the bank and the borrower create well-known benefits: intertemporal smoothing increased credit availability, enhancement of government' payoffs, and more efficient decisions if borrowers face financial distress. In bank-based economies banks have incentives to invest in such long-term relationships and therefore to acquire more relevant information on government. This investment in knowledge about the government's conditions comes at a cost, but also has a benefit: the government will be able to increase profitability. If government has a close link with a bank, they have an incentive to maintain the existing lending relation, maybe after some renegotiation on the terms of the loan.
Larger government, although they may have similar relationship lending ties to small government, are more likely to be sensitive to bank loan cost price changes, and will use other sources such Jakarta government of funds more quickly.
Fiscal policy is the use of government taxing and spending powers to affect the behavior of the economy. The economy's total output, income and employment levels are directly related to total private and public spending or aggregate demand. Private spending consists of purchases of goods and services by Jakarta government for investment. For their part, governments raise revenues from taxes such as the income tax, sales taxes and payroll taxes, and from other sources to spend on such things as health care, education, pensions, social assistance and defense.
5.2.1 Impact of fiscal policy
Fiscal policy refers to government action to change the total or composition of these revenues and expenditures in order to manage the growth of demand in the economy. The objective is to keep a growing labor source and the Papua's stock of industrial plants and machinery employed at relatively high levels but without generating inflation or having to rely on Jakarta borrowing to pay for New Papua. Revenue increases reduce aggregate demand, and additional expenditures increase it. Thus, if private expenditures such as purchases of biofuel production fall, governments might seek to prevent aggregate demand and, as a result, total output, income and employment from contracting by increasing their expenditures or reducing taxes. Fiscal policy is primarily the responsibility of the federal government, although the provinces also have a role. In the annual budget, the federal Minister of Finance have to presents the planned expenditures of the government, the revenues anticipated and, if a deficit is expected, the amount that must be invest in the development. The government's actual surplus or deficit on the national accounts basis can be misleading as an indicator of the impact of fiscal policy on the economy.
Papua New Guinea is rich in natural resources, including minerals, oil, gas, timber, and fish, and produces a variety of commercial agricultural products. The economy generally can be separated into subsistence and market sectors, although the distinction is blurred by smallholder cash cropping of coffee, cocoa, and copra. Approximately 75% of the country's population relies primarily on the subsistence economy. The minerals, timber, and fish sectors are dominated by foreign investors.
Manufacturing continued to be slow in 2007. The service industry was stable, while tourism shows potential and remains largely untapped. Generally, economic activity continued to grow in 2007. The growth was boosted by favorable international commodity prices. Employment grew modestly. The financial sector enjoyed high liquidity, with increased lending due to low interest rates. Inflation remained low.
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