CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1PREAMBLE:

Generally brewery effluent poses a serious problem in the environment. Those discharges come from the plant during production.

Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residence, commercial properties, industry or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentration.

Apart from been an eye sore, waste waters can cause epidemics as a result of numerous pathogenic organisms they contain which can lead to loss of useful farm lands. Wastewaters contain nutrients which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants.

However, industrial waste waters contain pollutants which if freely discharge into the free environment , leads to both physical and chemical changes of the environment such as coloration , biological condition ,reduction in quality and quantity of the biotic floral and human aesthetical assets.

As a result of these, the cost of pollution control is climbing rapidly. Formerly most industries paid for only the volume of the effluent discarded but today, the majority of treatment plant changes are based on both the effluent volume and level of contamination.

1.2BREWERY PROCESS:

Beer is made by brewing which are done in a brew house.

The first process of beer production is malting, malts are been crushed before mixed with water and its degree depends on the method of separation of the wort from spent grains.

The second is milling, which the milled grains are referred to as grist. Trub which is an effluent is drained off after cooling has been done and the cooled wort is transferred to fermentation vessels where fermentation takes place in the presence of yeast.

The next stage is transfer of fermented young beer into masturator tanks, excess yeast are drained off as effluent after this transfer is made. The young beer is allowed to mature in maturation vessel after which beer filtration takes place. Beer losses are encountered as effluent during this filtration process. Also filtration is done with filter aid which is washed off as effluent. The beer is filtered into bright beer tanks and transferred to the bottling machine. It is pasteurized to keep the clear colour for longer periods of time.

1.3 BREWERY EFFUENTS:

The brewery effluent comprises the spent grains from the mash filter. The dissolved product from mashing is known as wort while the insoluble remainder mostly husks of the malt is known as spent grains, surplus yeast which is an effluent is from fermentation process during larger yeast cropping. Spent hops during wort boiling are also brewery effluent. Carbondioxide and rough beer. from kieselghur sheet (KG) during filtration are also effluents from beer production

1.4 VOLUME OF EFFLUENTS

To produce one liter of beer, a liter of water is generally required. The consumption of water which is the principal raw material in brewery, varies a grade deal from one brewery to another depending on the production method adoption and equipment used.

1.5EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENTS

Brewery effluents have negative and positive effects on environment. If untreated wastewater is allowed to accumulate, the decomposition of the organic materials it contains can lead to the production of large quantities of malodorous gases .Untreated waste water usually contains numerous pathogenic or disease-causing micro organisms that dwell in the human intestinal tract or that may be present in certain industrial waste . Waste water also contains nutrients, which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and it may contain toxic compounds.

The only positive effect of brewery effluent is the spent grains which are used for feeding system in such animals like pigs.

For these reasons, the immediate and nuisance -free removal of waste water from its sources of generation followed by treatment and disposal, is not only desirable but also necessary in an industrialized society.

1.6OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE WORK

The main objectives and scope of the study are:

i.

To investigate the sources and quantity of waste water from a local brewery.

ii.

To characterize a brewery effluent stream and assess their probable influence on the receiving stream.

iii.

To propose and implement a treatment scheme for brewery effluent.

iv.

To review any treatment schemes available.

v.

To characterize the treated effluent for comparison with the original effluent stream.

vi.

To treat the wastewater to a standard level so that it will not be a pollutant in our environment.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The systematic treatment of wastewater was introduced in the late 1800s and early 1900s by the development of the germ theory by koch and Pasteur in the later half of the nineteenth century marked the beginning of a new era in sanitation. Although the collection of storm water and drainage dates from ancient times, the collection of wastewater can be traced only to the early 1800s. Before that time, the relationship of pollution to disease had been only faintly understood and the science of bacteriology, then in its infancy had not been applied to the subject of wastewater treatment.

In addition, the treatment and disposal of wastewater in united states did not receive much attention in the late 1800s because the relatively large bodies of water compared to those in Europe was not severe and because large area of land suitable for disposal were available. By the early 1990s, nuisance and health conditions brought impracticability of procuring sufficient areas for the disposal of untreated wastewater on land, particularly for larger cities led to the adoption of more intensive methods of treatment.

2.1.1 CURRENT STATUS

There are two methods of treatment which are unit operation and unit process. The unit operations are the application of physical forces predominates while the unit processes are the removal of contaminants in which it is brought about by chemical or biological reactions. These two processes are grouped together to provide, the primary, secondary and advanced or tertiary treatment.

In primary treatment, physical operations such as screening and sedimentation are used to remove the floating and settleable solids found in wastewater. In secondary treatment, biological and chemical processes are used to remove most of the organize matter.

In advanced treatment, additional combinations of unit operations and process are used to remove other constituents, such as nitrogen and phosphorus that are not reduce significantly by secondary treatment.

2.1.2 NEW DIRECTIONS AND CONCERNS

As the federal grant programs are being phased out, many municipalities are having to make difficult decision with respect to the financing of improvements to wastewater management facilities. Therefore, the effectiveness of any proposed improvements and facilities is being examined in detail, especially with respect to treatment plant performance, energy and resource use, operation and maintenance costs and capital costs.

Many years ago, a significant amount of money has been spent to construct wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, the performance of many of these facilities has not fulfilled the requirements of the discharge permits. In many case, a newly constructed plant have to be retrofitted or modified at considerable expense to meet the discharge requirements and to improve more reliable performance currently, performance certification is required in a number of states before final payment is made on projects financed with government grants. Treatment plants of improved design that are easier to operate and maintain will be required to meet existing and more stringent discharge requirements.

2.2 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL :

After treatment, wastewater must either be reused or disposed of to the environment. In these means, the wastewater disposal is been discharged and diluted into streams, rivers, lakes or the oceans. If adverse environmental impacts are to be avoided, the quality of the treated and disposed effluent must be consistent with local water quality objectives.

2.2.1 BACKGROUND:

Many years ago, it was understood that effluent disposal to receiving waters was accomplished by an open pipe. Mixing was accomplished variably, depending upon the natural characteristics of the receiving water. The most important of effluent disposal was that of the assimilative capacity of the receiving waters, often representing the of organic matter that could be discharged without excessively taxing the dissolved oxygen resources. Much attentions is now being paid to the environment effects of other constituents, such as suspended solids, nutrients, and toxic compound and how they can be safely assimilated into the aquatic environment.

2.2.2 NEW DIRECTION AND CONCERNS

:

The new directions and concerns of effluent disposal focuses on the transport of contaminants in the environment and the transformation processes that occur are to ensure that effluent disposal is accomplished in conformance with the environment requirements, a rigorous analysis must be performed in many cases. Modern techniques are mathematically used and involve the application of material balances for transport analysis and kinetic expression to describe the response of the physical system. By modeling the river and estuarine systems, it is possible to assess the assimilative capacity of these systems and thus to predict the impacts of the proposed discharged. Some important transformations are oxidation, bacterial conversion, natural delay and photosynthesis and respiration.

2.3 ANALYSIS OF THE EFFLUENTS.

Wastewater contains many different substances that can be used to characterized them. They are physical, chemical, biological characteristics.

2.3.1 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

2.3.1.1 COLOUR:

The is a qualitative characteristic that can be used to assess the general condition of waste water; fresh waste water is usually pinkish yellow due to malt it contains. A pinkish yellow color is a characteristic of waste water that have undergone some decomposition or that have been on the collection system for sometime. Typical septic wastewater will have a black or dark grey color having undergone extensive bacteria decomposition. Under anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) condition. The blackening of wastewater is often due to the formation of various sulfides, particularly ferrous sulfide. They results when hydrogen sulfide produce under anaerobic conditions combines with a divalent metal such as iron, which maybe present.

2.3.1.2 ODOR

The determination of odor has become increasingly important as the public has become more concerned with the proper operation of wastewater treatment facilities. The odor of fresh wastewater is usually not Offensive but a variety of odorous compounds is released when wastewater is decomposed biologically under anaerobic conditions. The principal odorous compound is hydrogen sulfide (the smell of rotten eggs) other compounds such as idol, stator, caravans and mercaptan, formed under anaerobic conditions may cause odors that are more offensive than that of hydrogen sulfide. Special care is called for in the design of treatment facilities to avoid conditions that will allow the development of odors.

2.3.1.3 TEMPERATURE-:

Temperature of waste water is commonly higher than that of the water supply because of the addition of warm water from households and industrial plants. The measurement of temperature is important because most waste water treatment schemes include biological processes that are temperature dependent.

2.3.1.4 TURBIDITY-:

The turbidity in water is caused by the presence of suspended matter such as clay, silt, finely - divided organic and inorganic matter, plankton, and other microscopic organisms. It can also be caused by finely - divided

air bubbles. Turbidity is an expression of the optical property of water which causes high to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the water sample Attempts to correlate turbidity with the weight of the suspended matter are matter impractical, as the size, shape and refractive index of the particulate particles are optically important but beer little direction relationship to the concentration and the density of the suspended matter.

2.3.1.5 PH:-

PH is a convenient method of expressing the acid condition of the wastewater. However, the dissociation of water into its respective cations and anions is really very slight and one lighter of neutral water. In its neutral state each mole contains an equal quantity of hydroxyl ions. The term PH is used to determine the hydrogen ion activity and also used to determine the hydroxyl ion activity and also used to determine the hydroxyl ion activity. Pure water at 250c dissociates to yield a concentration of hydrogen ions equal to 10‑7 moles per liter and since it also produces a hydroxyl ion for each hydrogen ion, it is obvious that 10‑7 moles of hydroxyl ion are produced simultaneously PH is expressed on a scale of 1 to 14. For proper treatment, waste water PH should normally be in the range of 6.5 to 8.0.

2.3.1.6 TOTAL SOLIDS

The total solids in a wastewater after consist of the insoluble or suspended solids and the soluble compounds dissolved in the water. The suspended solids content is found by drying and weighing the residue removed by filtering the sample. When the residue is ignited the volatile solids are burned off. Volatile solid are pressumed to be organic matter, although some organic matter will not burn and some inorganic solids break down at high temperatures. The organic matter consist of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Fats and grease,carbohydrates and fats. Fats and grease in exclusive amounts may interfere with the treatment process.

The amount of fat or grease in a sample is determined by adding hexane, the quantity is determined by evaporation the solution that is decanted off.

2.3.1.7 ALKALINITY:

This is a measure of the wastewater capability to neutralize acids. It is measured in terms of bicarbonates, carbonate and hydroxide alkalinity.

Alkalinity is essential to buffer (hold the neutral pH) of the water during the biological treatment processes.

2.3.2 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Chemical characteristics of wastewater can be described in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD),Biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved gases

2.3.2.1 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)

This is a measure of the amount of oxidizable matter present in the sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong chemical oxidants. It is an important rapidly measured parameter for stream and industrial waste studies and control of waste treatment plants. From the same source,

it correlate as well the with the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), organic carbon and organic matter.

2.3.2.2. BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

This is a measure of the amount of biodegradable matter in the wastewater. The determination involves the measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) used by micro-organism in the biochemical oxidation is a slow process and theoretically takes an infinite time to go to completion within a 20 day period, the oxidation is about 95 - 99% complete. The five day period is usually used for BOD tests, hence the BODS (BOD after 5 days) is generally used. Oxidation is from 60-75% complete after 5 days of biochemical oxidation. BOD is measured in milligrams / liter.

2.3.2.3DISSOLVED GASES:

There are gases that are dissolved in wastewater, the specific gases and normal concentrations are based upon the composition of the wastewater. Typical domestic wastewater contains oxygen in relatively low concentrations, carbondioxide and hydrogen sulfide (If septic conditions exist).

2.3.2.4 BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Wastewater contains various micro-organism but the ones that are of concern are those classified as protista, plant and animals.The category of prostista include bacteria, fungi, protozoa and algae plant include ferns, mosses, seed plants and liver worts. Invertebrates and vertebrates are included in the animal category. In terms of wastewater treatment, the most important category are the prostista, bacteria, and protozoa. Wastewater also contains many pathogenic organism which are generally originated from humans who are infected with diseases or who are carries of a particular disease. Since the identification of pathogenic organisms in wastewater, the coliform group of organisms which are more numerous and more easily tested for, is used as an indicator of the presence of pathogenic organisms.

However the test does not accurately reflect the presence or absence of all pathogens that may be found in the treated effluent which is viruses. Typically, the concentration of fecal coliforms found in raw wastewater is about several hundred thousand to ten of million per 100ml of sample.

2.4ANALYTIC METHODS:

The analysis used to characterize wastewater varies from precise quantitative chemical determination to the qualitative biological and physical determination. Many of the more stringent standards that have been developed recently deal with the removal of nutrients and priority pollutants. When wastewater is to be reused, standards normally include requirements for the removal of refractory organics, heavy metals and in some cases dissolved inorganic solids.

2.4.1. IMPORTANT CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN IN

WASTEWATER TREATMENT:

2.4.1.1Suspended solids:

Suspended solids can lead to the development of sludge deposit and anaerobic condition when interested wastewater is discharged in the aquatic environment.

2.4.1.2Biodegradable:

Composed principally of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, biodegradable organizes are measured most commonly in terms of BOD and COD. If discharged untreated to the environment their biological stabilization can lead to the depletion of natural oxygen resources and to the development of septic condition.

2.4.1.3Dissolved inorganic:

Inorganic constituents such as calcium, sodium and sulfate are added to the original domestic water supply as a result to the water use and may have to be removal if the wastewater is to be reused.

2.4.1.4Pathogens-

Communication diseases can be transmitted by the pathogenic organisms in wastewater.

2.5 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT FOR PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

The results of the analysis of wastewater sample are expressed in terms of physical and chemical unites of measurement. Measurements of chemical parameters are usually expressed in the physical units of milligrams per liter (mg/l) or grams per cubic meter (g/m3). The concentration of trace constituents is usually expressed as micrograms per liter (Ng/L). For the dilute systems in which one liter weighs approximately one kilogram, such as those encountered in parts per million (ppm). This is a mass to mass ratio, dissolved gases, considered to be chemical constituents are measured in units of mg/l or g/m3.Gases evolved as a by-product of wastewater treatment, such as carbon -dioxide and methane (anaerobic decomposition) are measured in terms of fit‑3(m3 or L).

2.6 TREATMENT SCHEME FOR BREWERY EFFLUENT

The principle method used for wastewater treatment and their application in the removal of contamination can be classified as

1. PHYSICAL UNIT OPERATION

2. CHEMICAL UNIT PROCESSES

3. BIOLOGICAL UNIT PROCESSES

TABLE 1

APPLICATION OF PHYSICAL UNIT PROCESS IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT:

PROCESS APPLICATION

1.

SCREENING

Removal of course and settleable solids by interception (surface straining)

2.

FLOW EQUALIZATION

Equalization of flow and mass loading of BOD and suspended solids.

3.

MIXING

Mixing of chemicals and gases with wastewater and maintaining solids in suspension

4.

SEDIMENTATION

Removal of settleable solids and thickening of sludge.

5.

FILTERATION

Removal of fine residual suspended solids remaining after chemical treatment.

TABLE 2

APPLICATION OF CHEMCAL UNIT PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT.

PROCESSAPPLICATION

CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION

Removal of phosphorus and enhancement of suspended solids removal in primary sedimentation facilities used for physical and chemical treatment.

DECHLORINATION

Removal of chlorine residual; that exist after chlorination.

DISINFECTION

Selective destruction of disease-causing organisms,usally with chlorine or ozone.

ADSORPTION

Removal of organics not removal by conventional chemical and biological treatment methods also used for dechlorination of wastewater before final discharge of treated effluent

TABLE 3

MAJOR BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES USED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT.

TYPEUSE

AEROBIC PROCESSES

SUSPENDED GROWTH

Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)

ATTACHED GROWTH

Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)

ANAEROBIC PROCESS

SUSPENDED GROWTH

stabilization, carbonaceous BOD removal

ATTACHED GROWTH

Carbonaceous BOD removal Stabilization.

2.6.1 PHYSICAL UNIT OPERATION

Those operation used for the treatment of waste water in which changes is brought about by the application of physical forces are know as physical unit operation

2.6.1.1 SCREENING:

The first unit operation encountered in waste water treatment plant is screening. A screen is a device with opening generally of uniform size that is used to retain the course solids found in wastewater.

The screening element may consist of parallel rods or wire, wire mesh or perforated plates and the opening may be any shape but generally are circular or rectangular slots. A screen composed of parallel bars or rods is called a rack. Although a rack is a screening device,the term “screen” should be limited to the type with wire cloth or perforate plates.

However, the function performed by a rack is called screening and the materials removal by it are known as Screenings or rack- kings Course screen or rack with 5omm openings or larger are used to large floating objects from wastewater. They are installed ahead of pump to prevent clogging.Medium screen have opening ranging from about 12 to 40mm course and medium screen should be large enough to maintain a velocity

of flow through the screen and reduces the opportunity for screening to be pushed through the openings.

Fine screens with opening of 1.6 to 3mm are often used to pretreat industrial wastewater or to relieve the Local on sedimentation base at treatment plants where heavy industrial wastewater are present. They will remove as much as 20 percent of the suspended solids in waste water.

A fine screen should ordinarily be preceded by a coarse screen remove the larger particles. The screenings usually contains considerable organic material which may putrefy and become offensive and must be disposed by a incineration or burial. Screening usually contain about 80 percent moisture by weight and will not burn without predrying.

2.6.1.2 COMMINUTION

Comminution (or shredders) are devices that are used to grind or cut waste solids to about 1/4 in.(6mm).In one type of comminutior, the wastewater enters a slotted cylinder within which another similar cylinder with sharp-edged slots rotates rapidly. As the solids are reduced in size, they pass through the slots of the cylinders and move on with the liquid to the treatment plant. Comminutors eliminate the problem of disposal of

screenings by reducing the solids to sizes that can be processed elsewhere in plant.

2.6.1.3 GRIT REMOVAL

Grit removal may be accomplished in grit chambers or by the centrifugal separation of sludge Grit chambers are designed to remove grit, consisting of sand, gravel, cinders or other heavy solid materials that have subsiding velocities or specific gravities substantially greater than those of the organic putrescible in waste water

2.6.1.4 COAGULATION AND FLOCUULATION

This c an be defined as the process by which colloid are destabilized and particles are allowed to grow or flocculate to size that settle out satisfactory.

The flocculation chemicals that will be used for this project are ferrous sulphate and Aluminum sulphate (Alum). They form positively charged hydrous oxides which nuetralize the negative charges on the proteins and other colloids contained in the waste water.The amount of flocculating chemicals that will be added to waste water depends on the strength of the waste water, the requisite degree of treatment, the condition of flocculation in the amount of wastewater flow.

2.6.1.5 SEDIMENTATION

2.6.1.6

This is the gravitational separation of suspension into it s component solid and liquid phases. It is one of the most widely used unit operations in waste water treatment.

In primary sedimentation of waste water, there are two aims, to produce high degree of both clarification and thickening.

Clarificationis the removal of solids from liquid from the solid or sludge phase.A high degree of clarification is required to reduce the load on the secondary treatment plant and a high degree of the thickening is desirable so that sludge handling and treatment are minimized.

2.6.1.6 FILTERATION (RAPID GRANULUR AND SLOW SAND FILTERS)

The use of rapid granular filters for effluent polishing following secondary treatment is gaining in popularity especially since the Environmental Agency published definition of secondary treatment. Both gravity and pressure filters have been used.Slow sand filters are some times used for final or advanced treatment following secondary or other treatment processes such as lagoons and stabilization ponds. Such tilters are often called polishing filters. Waste water is applied continuously at about 10 gpd,ft2 (0.4m/day) and the straining action of the sand relied upon to remove most of the remaining suspended solids in the waste water.

2.6.2 CHEMICAL TREATMENT METHODS

Those process used for the treatment of waste water in which change is brought about by means of or through chemical reaction are known as chemical unit process.

The principal chemical unit processes used for waste water treatment are chemical precipitation and chlorination.

2.6.2.1CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION:

Chemical precipitation in waste water involves the addition of chemical to alter the physical state of dissolved and suspended solids and facilitate their removal by sedimentation.

Alum and ferric chloride are two commonly used coagulants in waste water treatment, lime will be added as an auxiliary chemical to improve the action of the coagulant. Chemical sedimentation will be successful only if the chemical and waste water are mixed properly.

2.6.2.2 CHLORINATION

Chlorination is one of the method of disinfection selected for the destruction of diseases-causing organism in waste water. Chlorination may

be used as a final step in the treatment of waste water or when an effluent low in bacteria content is necessary. Such use of chlorine is known as post chlorination.The disinfection properties of chlorine reduce the bacteria count and the oxidizing characteristics can reduce the BOD. Prechlorination before the waste water enters the sedimentation tank help to control odors, which may prevent flies in tricking filters, and assist in grease removal.

In proper does, chlorine will destroy the bacteria which break down the sulfur compounds in the waste water and produce hydrogen sulfide, for this reason. Chlorine is sometimes put into the main collecting sewers to prevent the destructive action of hydrogen sulfide on concentrate pipe. The usual chlorine does various considerably but is always much greater than in water purifications preclorination does may be as high as 25mg/L,post chlorination usually requires at least 3mg/L. Chlorine is sometimes added both at the beginning and end of the treatment process in what is known as split chlorination.

2.6.3 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT METHOD

Biological treatment involves the conversion of the dissolved and colloidal organic matter in waste water to biological cell tissue and to end

Products and the subsequent removal of cell tissue usually by gravity settling. From a practical stand point, the major concerns in biological waste water treatment are with the creation of the optimum environment and physical conditions to bring the rapid and effective conversion of organic matter to cell tissue and its subsequent removal. Although the biological conversion can be accomplished both aerobically (in the presence of oxygen) and an aerobically (in the absence of oxygen). The micro organism responsible for the conversion can be maintained in suspension attached to a fixed or moving medium. Such biological treatment process are known as aerobic suspended growth or attached growth processes.

The biological conversion of organic matter by suspended micro organism is carried out in tanks that are called reactors. The activated sludge process, which is used extensively, is the best known example of an aerobic suspended growth biological treatment process,where aerobic attached growth processes are used, a suitable fixed or moving medium

must be provided for these organism to grow on. As the mass of cell tissue builds up on the medium, a portion of it will periodically slough off. This material, which approximately corresponds to the net dialy growth of biological cell tissue, must be removed in setting facilities to achieve treatment. The trickling filter and its variations, is the most common attached growth process. The rotation biological disk process, in which are attached is moving is a recent varient.

2.6.3.1 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS.

In the activated sludge process untreated or settled waste water is mixed with 20 to 50 percent of its own volume of enters an aeration tank where the organisms and waste water are mixed together with a large quantity of air. Under these condition, the organism oxidize a portion of the waste organic matter to carbon-dioxide and water and synthesize the other portion into new microbial cells.

Oxidation.

COHNS + O2 + bacteria CO2 + H2O + NH3

+ other end.Products + Energy

Synthesis

COHNS + O2 ­+ bacteria + energy C5 H7 NO2 New Cell Tissue

(The term COHNS means carbon, oxygen, hydrogen nitrogen and sulphur)

The mixture then enters a settling tank where the flocculent microorganism settles and are removal from the effluent stream. The settle microorganism or activated sludge is then recycled to the head end of the aeration tank to be mixed again with water. New activated sludge is continuously being produced in this process, and the access sludge produced each day (waste activated sludge) must be disposed of together with the sludge from the primary treatment facilities. The effluent from a property operated activated-sludge plant is of high quantity, usually having a lower BOD than that from a trickling filter.

2.6.3.2 TRICHING FILTER PROCESS

The effluent from primary sedimentation generally contains about 60 to 80 percent of unstable organic matter originally present in the waste water. The trickling filter process is one method of oxidizing this putrescible matter remaining after primary treatment.

A conventional trickling filter consist of bed of crushed rock, slag or gravel whose particles range from about 5 to 10cm in size. The bed is commonly 2 to 3m deep, although shallower beds are sometimes used. Waste water is applied to the surface of the filter intermittently by one or

more rotary distributors and percolates downward through the bed to under grains, where it is collected and discharge through an outlet channel. A gelatinous biological film forms on the filter medium and the fine suspended, colloidal and dissolved organic solids of the waste collect on this film, where biochemical oxidation of the organic matter is accomplished by aerobic bacteria. A new filter when first put into use will usually be quite in effective for about 2 weeks until a satisfactory deletions film has formed on the particles in bed. The film eventually becomes quite thick accumulated, organic matter and will slough off (or unload) from time to time and be discharged with effluent. The effluent from sedimentation to remove the solids that pass the filter.

CHAPTER THREE

EXPERIMENTAL

This chapter deals with the experimental determination of the various parameters associated of the Nigerian Brewery plc. 9th mile corner Enugu state, which case study.

3.1PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS USUALLY PERFORMED IN THE LABORATORY ARE:

I.

The colour of the water.

II.

The temperature of the water.

III.

The P.H value of the water.

IV.

The chemical oxygen demand (COD)

V.

The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

VI.

The electrical conductivity of the water.

VII.

The turbidity of the water.

VIII.

The total hardness of the water.

IX.

The calcium hardness.

X.

The magnesium hardness.

XI.

The total dissolved solids.

XII.

The total suspended solids.

XIII.

The chloride as chloride ion (cl)

XIV.

The chloride as sodium chloride (Nacl)

XV.

The total iron content as ferric iron (fe)

XVI.

The sulphates as sulphate iron (so42-)

XVII.

The Nitrates as nitrate nitrogen.

XVIII.

The silica in water.

3.1.1COLOUR DETERMINATION

The water sample is properly shaked and is then poured into one of the neissler tubes up to the 50ml. mark of the tube. The tube is then placed in the right hand compartment of the neissleriser. The other neissler tube is filled to the 50ml, mark with distilled water and then placed on the left hand side of the neisslerier Then the hazen comparator disc is inserted and rotated until the colour achieved in the distilled water matches with the colour of the water sample. The apparent colour value then read up in Hazen unit.

For a highly turbid water sample, 1ml of the water sample is placed inside the enisled tube and then diluted to the 50ml mark with distilled water. Then is the placed in the right hand compartment of the neissleriser The other neissler tube with distilled water is put in the left hand compartment. The comparator disc is then inserted and the value of the apparent colours is read up as before. This value is then multiplied by a factor of dilution ration.

This time 1:50 that is (apparent colour 50/1) = the actual value of the apparent colour.

3.1.2. TEMPERATURE DETERMINATION

The temperature of the body has a wide application. For good health of illness; however, mercury in glass thermometer provides a good and sensitive instrument for measuring temperature in or out side laboratories.

Thus, the temperature of any water sample is examined by inserting the thermometer into the water sample. The mercury in the thermometer will continue to rise unitil a final steady temperature is attained which entreats the temperature of the water sample in degrees Celsius (oC)

3.1.3. PH VALUE

Approximate measurements of PH can be made with the use of colour comparator known as the lovibond instruments.

Firstly, the small test tubes should be rinsed properly with distilled water. Then the water sample whose PH value is to be tested is properly shaked and is then poured into one of tubes up to the 5ml mark of the tubes. A few drop of an indicator solution, are added to the water in the test tube which cause it to change colour. The tube is then place in the right hand compartment of the comparator instrument. The other test tube is filled to its mark with distilled water and place in the left hand compartment. Then the PH comparator coloured glass disc is inserted, by rotating the disc, the colour glass disc shades in the test tube at the left hand of the compartment of comparator instrument is compared with the developed colour in the test tube at the right hand compartment. When colour in the left hand compartment marches with the colour in the right hand compartment the PH value is read off.

Consequently, for a high degree of precision, electric PH meter is made use of in obtaining PH measurements. The electrode of the PH meter is properly rinsed first with distilled water and then with the water sample. The water sample is properly shaked and some quantities are poured into a beaker, and the electrode of the Ph meter is placed upright inside the beaker containing the water sample. The electrode is left in this position for a few seconds before switching on the PH meter. The first steady state of the counter in the meter is taken as the PH value.

3.1.4 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)

50ml of the sample was placed in the 500ml refluxing flask. 1g mercuric sulphate was added using a reagent spoon. Several boiling clips and 5ml sulphuric acid reagent were added very slowly with mixing to avoid possible loss of the volatile materials in the sample 25ml of 0.25m K2Cr2 o7 solution was added and again mixed. The flask was attached to a condenser and the cooling water started. 70ml sulphric acid reagent was added through the open end of the condenser with swindling and mixing of the acid was being added.The mixture was refused for two hours and then diluted with distilled water to about twice its volume. The mixture was then cooled to room temperature and the excess potassium heptaxodichromate (K2 cr2 O7) was titrated with standard ferrous ammonium sulphate using 2-3 drops of feraine indicator. There was a sharp colour change from blue green to reddish brown and was taken as the end point, however, the blue green colour reappeared within some minutes.A blank consisting of distilled water and equal in volume to that of the sample that was refluxed together with the reagent. It was calculated by

COD (MG/L) = (A-B) X N X 8000

ML of sample

Where COD = Chemical oxygen demand from K2 CR2 O7

A = ML ferrous ammonium sulphate used for blank

B= ML ferrous ammonium sulphate used for sample

N= Normality of ferrous ammonium sulpate.

3.1.5 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND DETERMINATION (BOD)

Some quantity of high quality distilled water was aerated for two hours.

1ml of each of the following reagent was added into one liter of aerated water.(MgSo4 Solution, Phosphate buffer solution,CaCl2 and FeCl3 solution) and mixed properly. This was used as dilution water 3ml of sample under investigation was added into a clear BOD bottle of about 300ml capacity and made up to 300ml with the dilution water. The sample was duplicated and labeled as “Initial and final” using the dilution water as bank (in blank) and also label as initial and final together with blank..2ml of the following chemicals was added; manganese ii sulphate dihydrate solution and alkaline iodine solution. Consecutively, closed in a bottle and mixed intensely and then allow to settle.If the supernatant liquid was clean, then some exhaust part of the liquid was pumped out with the aid of water fet pump.2ml of concentrated phosphoric acid was added and shaken properly and titrated with 0.02.Sodium thiosulphate solution to a color less point starch solution as indicator. The liter value was recorded using the bottle of the ‘finals” after at most 1 hour and incubating 1 the dark at 200c for 5 days.2ml of MnSo4.2H2O solution was added and 2ml of Alkaline Iodine solution were continue as that of the titrated as well that of the initial.

It is calculated by oxygen (O2) content of the blank “Final and Initial” the equation below was used.

If A =Volume of NO2SO2O3(0.02m)

Oxygen (O2) content =8000×(A×M)/A-2

i.e. If sulphuric acid was used for acidification but if phosphoric acid was used, the denominator is A-4

= oxygen (O2) content = 8000×(a×N)/A-4

3.1.6 THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE WATERDETERMINATION

The temperature of the water is measured using a thermometer, then the electrode of the conductivity meter is rinsed several times with distilled water. The flask housing the electrode is also rinsed with water sample whose conductivity is to be measured. The flask is then filled to the mark with the water sample. The electrode is then placed inside the flask half immersed in the water sample and is allowed to attain the sample condition. The conductivity meter is switched on .The first steady numbers

in the meter counter is recorded to be the electrical conductivity of the sample.

3.1.7 TURBIDITY OF THE WATER DETERMINATION.

The water sample was properly shacked and a small portion was used to rinse the turbidity meter. Then the turbidity water was filled to its mark of 1050ML capacity with the water sample. The electric bulb was plugged and switched on. Then a knob was rotated until the slider just touched the last visible light spot. The value of the turbidity of the water sample was read off scale.

3.1.8 DETERMIN ATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS O FTHE WATER.

The conical flask, burette and pipette are rinsed with distilled water.The pipette is to be rinsed again with the water sample whose total hardness is to determined. Also, the burette is rinsed again with EDTA (ethylenediamine) tetra-active acid. This burette is filled with the EDTA and clamped in a clamp stand. After, through shaking of the water is pipette into the conical flask. Then 2ml of total hardness buffer.Solution is added to the sample in the flask. And 0.5ml of total hardness indicator is added.

The sample will turn pink. Titrating with EDTA the sample turns blue colour when the end point is reached.

However, the volume of the EDTA used to get to the end point is to be used in the calculation of the total hardness.

3.1.9DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM HADRNESS.

The comical flask, burette and pipette are rinsed with distilled water. The pipette is rinsed again with the water sample and the burette rinsed again with the EDTA. Using this EDTA the burette is filled to its mark. Shaking the water sample thoroughly 100ml of the sample is pipette in to the flask. Calcium hardness indicator tablet is added (1 tablet for each experiment) and the flask is continuously being shake until the tablet is dissolved. The 2ml calcium hardness buffer solution is added. Titrating with EDTA, the color of the water sample changes from pink to purple when the end point is reached. However the volume of the EDTA used during the titration is made use of in the calculation of calcium Hardness.

3.1.10 DETERMINATION OF MAGNESIUM HARDNESS.

After the calculations of the total hardness and calcium hardness, based on the results of their respective titrations,the magnesium hardness is determined between the total hardness the calcium hardness.

3.1.11 DETERMINATION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

Since the conductive of electricity by water is due to the presence of ion isable particles dissolved in the water sample, the total dissolved solids (T.D.S) in the water sample can be obtain by measuring the conductivity of the water. This achieved with the use of conductivity meter.

The electrode of the conductivity meters is rinsed, with distilled water, several times. The flask housing the electrode is also rinsed with distilled water and then rinsed again with the water sample whose conductivity is to be measured. The flask is then filled to the mark with the water sample. The electrode is placed inside the flask half immersed in the water sample conditions. Then the conductivity meter is switched on. The firs steady numbers of the counter in the meter is recorded which gives the conductivity of the water.

3.1.12DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE IONS

The PH value of the water is first determination. If the PH of the sample is below 7.0. sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) is added into the sample is pipetted into a conical flask few drops of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) solution is added into the flask. O.2N silver nitrate solution is put in a burette. The sample in the flask is titrated with the silver nitrate. Solution until a pinkish yellow coloration is obtained indicating the end point of the titration. However, because of the possible interference of chlorides existing side by side with the chemicals and distilled water, 0.2ml, known as the blank, is subtracted to from the result of the titre in order to avert this interference.

Furthermore, for a highly coloured and turbid water sample and prior the above procedures for estimating chloride ions and is mixed properly and allowed to settle. It is then filtered and the filtrate is used in the estimation of the chloride ions as described overleaf..

3.1.13. DETERMINATION OF IRON (Fe)

100ml of the water sample whose iron content is to be measured is put into a conical flask and 2ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added. Then, hydroxyl amine-hydrochloride solution is added into the flask and is heated until the content of the flask is reduced to about 50ml. Then, after cooling, the sample is transferred to a volumetric flask (a 100ml flask).Then10ml of ammonium acetate buffer solution and 2ml orth-phenothrolin are added into the volumetric flask. The volumetric flask is then filled to the 100ml mark with double-distilled water and the flask is shaken several times to mix the content properly. Then the spectronic 20 spectrophotometer is switched on and is allowed to stay for about 15minutes after which the wave length scale reads 510mm. The zero control knob is then adjusted until the meter pointer of the absorbance scale gets to the zero position. Then the spectronic 20 test tube is rinsed and filled to the mark with distilled water. The test tube and its content is placed inside the sample holder of the spectrophotometer. The meter pointer or the absorbance scale is then adjusted to read maximum absorbance, removing the test tube from the sample holder, the distilled water in the test tube is then replaced with the already experimentally prepared sample, placing the test tube and its content into the sample holder of the spectrophotometer the absorbance is obtained from the meter.

3.1.14 DETERMINATION OF SULPHATE ION

Into a conical flask 100ml of the water sample is pipette and 5ml of prepared conditioning reagent is added into the flask. The flask is shake thoroughly to ensure complete mixing some of the water sample which is put into a spectrum 20 test tube known as the curvette serves as the blank. After the colorimeter has been adjusted, the blank samle is then placed into the sample holder. Then the absorbance of the blank is read up in the meter. The curvette is brought out of the sample holder and the sample is poured away, into a small beaker, containing the water sample, a spoonful of barium Chloride (Bacl2) is added and is stirred at a constant speed for one minute. The curvette is filled to the mark and it is placed into the sample holder of the spectron 20 colorimeter and the absorbance is read up in the meter of the instrument.The difference between the absorbance of the blank and the absorbance of the sample containing the barium chloride is calculated.

3.1.15 DETERMINATION OF NITRATE NITROGEN

100ml of the water sample is placed in side a dry evaporating dish and is evaporated to dryness using a stream water bath. After drying, the dish is allowed to cool and 1ml phenol-disulphonic acid is added into the dish. The dish is then tilted continuously to ensure that the acid makes contact with every part of the inside of the evaporating dish. The dish and its contents Is left for about 10 minutes before transferring the contents into a nessler tube wing distilled water. Then 10ml of 10% ammonia solution is added into the tube and the tube is filled up to the mark using distilled water. This tube is the placed in right hand compartment of the nesellerizer. Another nesller tube is filled to the mark with distilled water and is placed in the left hand compartment of the nesellerizer. Then, an appropriate lovibond comparator disc is inserted. Then the comparator is rotated until the colour glass in the comparator disc eluminates in the distilled water marches with the colour of the sample. The reading in the comparator disc is noted. The units of this measurement is in gama (x) and I gama =0.00lmg.

3.1.16 DETREMINATION OF SILICA

100ml of the given water is placed into a conical flask. Then the flask is warmed to about 350 c and from this flask, a nessler tube is filled to its 50ml mark. Then 6ml of sulphuric acid molybdate is added into the tube and it is mixed properly with the water sample by closing the mouth of the nessler tube with the palm of the hand and tilting the tube several times. And the nessler tube and its content is left for 10 minutes to allow colour to develop. It is then placed in the right hand compartment of the nesslerizer.

Meanwhile, another nessler tube was filled to its 50ml mark with distilled water and was placed in the left hand compartment of the nesslerizer. At the end of 2 minutes a silica colour comparator disc was inserted into the nessleriser. The, comparator disc is rotated until a colour march between the right hand compartment was obtained.

3.1.17.DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS(TSS)

A filter paper was placed in the buckner funnel of an assembled filtration apparatus. The natural dried weight of the standard filter paper was recorded. The filter paper was then placed in the buckner funnel of an assembled filtration apparatus. A 100ml of a well mixed sample was measured and filtered by suction pressure process, the filter paper was then washed three times with successive 20ml portions of distilled water. The filter paper was then transformed into an oven and dried at 1050C from one hour and allowed to cool at room temperature in a desiccator prior for weighing. The amount of suspended suspended solids was then calculated as follows

If A= weight of the filter paper + dried residue (mg)

B=weight of the dry filter paper (mg)

Total suspended solids (in mg/l) = (A-B)×10000000

100ml(volume of sample)

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with the experimental results obtained from different chemical and physical parameters associated with Brewery wastewater which is in accordance with the National Environment Standard Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA).

4.1NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT STANDARD FOR PORTABLE WATER:

This standard was used as a guide to the result of the physical,- chemical and biological analysis and treatment of wastewater samples from Ama Brewery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

4.2PHYSICAL PARAMETERS:

These are parameters whose treatment methods are predominated by physical unit operations (for example; screening, mixing, sedimentation etc).

Table A

parameter

B4 WWTD

After wwtp

Projected treatment

NESREA

Colour(HZ)

25.00

15.00

17.00

25

Turbidities

220.00

105.00

100.00

Ns

4.2.1DISCUSSION

The colour of the wastewater discharged by Ama Brewery Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is in confirmative with the NERSEA standard.

Turbidity is haziness in water caused by the presence of insoluble suspended particle. It permissible limit is not stated (Ns) by NERSEA.

TABLE B

PARAMETERS

B4WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATMENT

NESREA

Temperature(0c)

32.00

22.00

22.00

20-33

PH

5.60

6.80

6.00

6-9

4.2.2DISCUSSION

Laboratory analysis revealed an average PH of 5.6 for the untreated waste (table B).This is far below the permissible range of 6-9. Low PH as shown in the investigation is objectionable. The economic disadvantage lies in the extra lost of coagulation, flocculation and disinfection which are all affected by PH.

However, to avoid the negative consequence of how PH such as corrosion of pipes and soil erosion the waste was adequately treated by the Brewery in confirmity to NESREA.

The average temperature of Ama Brewery wastewater is 32oC. Though it is within the permissible range it is slightly very high and could affect the magnitude of density, viscosity (hence sedimentation during water treatment) vapour pressure, surface tension of water, the saturation values of solids and gasses that are or can be dissolved in it and the rate of chemical ,biochemical and biological activities such as corrosion , BOD, growth and death o micro-organisms.

TABLE C

PARAMETERS

B4WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATED

NESREA

TDS(mg/l)

700.00

502.00

400.00

2000.00

TSS(mg/l)

240.00

102.00

15.00

15.00

TS(mg/l)

440.00

604.00

415.00

2015.00

4.2.3DISCUSSION

The average total suspended solid in wastewater discharged at Ama Brewery after the WWTP was found to be 102mg/l. as againstt the recommended efferent discharged of 15mg/l. The high disparity in values shows the variability of high wastewater qualities. This is able to record a high suspended solid in the mixture of Ama Brewery wastewater and the receiving stream.

4.3CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

These are parameters whose treatment involves the addition of chemicals to alter the physical state of dissolved and suspended solids and to facilitate their removal by sedimentation.

TABLE D

PARAMETER

B4 WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATED

NESREA

DO(mg/l)

0.80

1.60

1.80

Not<2

BOD(mg/l)

200

120.00

25.00

15.00

COD(mg/l)

90.00

59.00

60.00

80.00

4.3.1DISCUSSION

The D O of waste water discharged at Ama Brewery was found to be 1.8 mgk against the permissible limit of 2mgt. This places a dissolved oxygen (D.O) demand on the stream in which is discharged and if there is inadequate aeration, the stream may turn septic with a consequent reduction in the waste quality.

The BOD of a waste indicates the biochemically oxidizable organic matter hence, it is an important parameter for assessing water is 120.00mgk. This value is far above the recommended effluent discharged standard of 15mgl.

Even though, the adverse effect of high BOD is not easily noticable, there is no doubt that ground water in the immediate vicinite of discharge and along the receiving stream may be seriously polluted.

It is a universal policy that the conservation of the environments demands that effluent discharged greater than 15mg/l should not be allowed into the stream except the receiving stream has adequate dilution capacity.

TABLE E

PARAMETERS

B4WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATED

NESREA

CHLORIDE(mg/l)

21.60

9.67

8.00

6.00

PHOSPHATE (mg/l)

4.00

2.00

3.00

5.00

SULPHATE mg/l)

36.00

22.00

20.00

500.00

4.3.2 DISSCUSION

Phosphate content in a stream serves as nutrient to plant growth causing eutroplucation.

The phosphate content of Ama Brewery wastewater (both treated and untreated) is within the permissible range.

Chloride and sulphate are also within the permissible limits of 600mg/l respectively. When sulphate are in excess amounts in drinking water, they may produce a laxative or cathartic effect on the people consuming such, their concentrations over 250mg/l impart peculiar taste to the water which is objectionable for drinking purposes.

TABLE F

PARAMETER

B4 WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATED

NESREA

TOTAL HARDNESS

76.00

35.00

35.00

NS

CALCIUM HARDNESS

42.00

23.00

20.00

200

MAGNESIUM HARDNESS

24.00

12.00

12.00

200

4.3.3DISCUSSION

Except for the total hardness which is not stated by the National Environmental standard Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA),other values for calcium and magnesium hardness are all within the recommended values and hence satisfactory.

TABLE G

PARAMETERS

B4WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATED

NESREA

Alkalinity

120.40

61.50

60.00

Ns

Iron (Fe)

0.90

0.40

0.6

20.00

Conductivity

1120.00

803.00

640.00

Ns

Ns = Not stated.

4.3.4DISCUSSION

Though alkalinity is not stated that is, the permissible limit, it is used to control softening treatment of water.

There is no danger of bitter taste and odor of wastewater discharged at Ama Brewery due to the absence of or low concentration of Iron (Fe).

4.4BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

The aim is to coagulate and remove the non settleable colloidal solids and to stabilize the organic matter. For industrial wastewater, the objective is to remove or reduce the concentration of organic and inorganic compounds.

TABLE H

PARAMETER

B4 WWTP

AFTER WWTP

PROJECT TREATED

NESREA

Plate count (cfu/100ml)

200.00

140.00

140.00

Ns

Coloform (cfu/100ml)

300.00

160.00

160.00

400.00

4.4.1DISCUSSION

Plate count of micro-organism are made either directly by diluting the waste until the numbers are low enough for separate colonies to be grown and counted.

The value of total coliform is within the permissible limit. There is therefore, no danger of infection to living organisms.

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 RECOMMENDATION

The Ama Brewery wastewater has potential to pollute surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to treat the waste properly so as to ensure that the temperature, PH, suspended solid, oxygen demanded phosphate contents are within the permissible limits.

The use of effective oxidizing reagents such as pure oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxides instead of pure air, and carbondioxide instead of mineral acids as alkali neutralizer are highly recommended.

5.2CONCLUSION

Industrial waste water discharged at Ama Brewery contain pollutants which if freely discharged into the free environment could lead to both physical and chemical charges of the environment. Such changes may vary from colouration, biological conditions, reduction in the quality of the biotic, floral and human esthetical assets, also other material degration such as erosion and other damages may arise from ion exchange reaction at the streambed.

APPENDIXES

(I)DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS

1 Experimental readings

Experimental Numbers

1

2

3

Final burette reading

7.60cm3

15.20cm3

7.60cm3

Initial burette reading

0.00cm3

7.60cm3

0.00cm3

The end points

7.60cm3

7.60cm3

7.60cm3

Therefore,

The volume of EDTA used =7.60+7.60+7.60

3 =7.60cm3

But total hardness is given by

Total hardness=A × B × 100

100ml of sample

Where

A=The average volume of the EDTA used

during titrations to reach the end point.

B=1mg of caco3 equivalent to 1mg of EDTA

Total hardness= 7.60 ×1 × 1000 =76mg/l

100

The value for total hardness above is for the untreated waste. Same procedure for calculation is followed for the treated-in-plant and treatment done by project student.

(II )DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM HARDNESS

Experiment Numbers

1

2

3

Final burette reading

4.20cm3

8.40cm3

4.20cm3

Initial burette reading

0.00cm3

4.20cm3

0.00cm3

The end point

4.20cm3

4.20cm3

4.20cm3

The volume of EDTA used

=4.20+4.20+4.20(cm3)

3

Calcium hardness is given by

Calcium hardness = A × B × 1000

100ml of sample

=4.20cm3 × 1mg ×1000

100ml of sample =42.0mg/l

Magnesium hardness =Total hardness Calcium hardness

(III)DETERMINATION OF IRON (Fe)

Iron was determined by the equation below

Y=4.34rx-0.025(This is a standard equation)

Y=The iron content in mg/l

X =Absorbance.

From the experiment, absorbance = 0.21

Therefore ,the iron content in mg/l = 4.34(0.21)-0.025 = 0.90mg/l

(IV)DETERMINATIONOF TOTAL ALKALINITY

Total alkalinity = B × M × 50,000

100 of sample

B = The total volume of acid used in titration to get end point

M = molarity of the acid= Normality/50 = 0.02m

EXPERIMENTAL READING

Final burette reading

12.04cm3

24.08cm3

12.04cm3

Initial burette reading

0.00cm3

12.04cm3

0.00cm3

End point

12.04cm3

12.04cm3

12.04cm3

Volume of acid used

12.04 + 12.04 + 04

3 =12.04cm3

Therefore

Total alkalinity calculation was used, after getting the volume of acid used, in calculating the total alkalinity of the treated-in-plant sample and analysis of treatment done on the untreated sample by the project student

(V)DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SOLID (TS)

Total solid in gm/l = X ×1000,000

100ml of sample

Initial weight of dish = 65.7410g

Final weight of dish=65.8350g

_ weight Total solids = Final weight - Initial weight

= 65.8350 - 657140 (g) = 0.094g

X = 0.094g

Therefore

Total solid = 0.094 x 1000,000

100ml of sample =940mg/l

(VI)DETERMINATION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)

The TDS was determined by the standard equation below

Y=0.625x

X=conductivity of water sample =1.420

Y=Total dissolved solid µohm/cm

Y=700mg/l

TSS (Total suspended solid) = T.S - T.D.S =940-700 (mg/l)

=240mg/l

(VII)DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (C O D)

COD (mg/l) =(A-B) × N × 8000

50ml of sample

A = volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate used for blank

B = volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate used for sample

N = Normality of the ferrous ammonium sulphate .

From experiment

A = 6,350CM3

B = 725cm3, N= 0.1

Therefore

COD = (6,350-725) × 0.1 × 8000

50ml of sample

COD = 90mg

Source: Essay UK - http://turkiyegoz.com/free-essays/economics/the-effect-of-industrial-wastewater-pollution.php


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